Oor die jare heen was die Treasury of Scripture Knowledge (TSK) vir my een van my belangrikste instrumente vir Skrif-met-Skrif-verklaring. Dit is kruisverwysings by elke teks en woord. Die Woord Self kom aan die Woord. Dit is nie net vir teoloë bedoel nie, maar ook vir lidmate. Dit is ook gratis beskikbaar vir e-Sword en TheWord.
Nou het The NEW TREASURY of SCRIPTURE KNOWLEDGE Edited by JEROME H. SMITH verskyn.
Dit is ‘n aansienlike uitbreiding van die TSK. Behalwe ‘n massa nuwe tekste is ook E. W. Bullinger sekosbare Figures of Speech Used in the Bible ingewerk en nog ”n paar ander werke.
Ek het myself die guns gedoen en dit in Logos-formaat gekoop.
Hierdie is ‘n absolute moet vir almal wat in Skrifuitleg en –studie belangstel.
HIERDIE UITTREKSEL SAL U ‘N GOEIE IDEË GEE:
The New Treasury of Scripture Knowledge has been designed for the ordinary Bible reader. As I have worked on the references and notes to this new edition, I have kept in mind several very ordinary Christian laymen and laywomen who helped me at the start of my Christian life. While this book is very simple to use, its contents are inexhaustible. It will provide the fullest help available on nearly every verse in the Bible. At several places I have provided notes of a more scholarly nature because the passage involved has been misunderstood by many interpreters or particular religious movements. It has been my purpose to help Bible students understand such verses at the verse where the difficulty arises. See, for example, the note on John 1:1.
The original Treasury was developed from the references in the Reverend Thomas Scott’s Commentary, supplemented by the references in the center column of the English Polyglot Bible. The pages of the Treasury were designed to match the page content of editions of the Polyglot Bible in English published by Samuel Bagster and Sons of London. The effort to match the paging of this particular edition of the Bible led to what have been some unfortunate features in all former editions, most especially the tiny print in the Psalms and elsewhere, where the references are cramped into three columns on a page. In some portions of Scripture, where the number of cross-references to be adduced were few, the rest of the page was taken up with explanatory notes on the passages. Most of these notes have been retained. Additional notes have been provided where it was thought helpful, many from the Comprehensive Bible, the source of most of the original Treasury notes. Examples of these include notes at Genesis 38:21, Exodus 40:2, and Judges 9:54. I have modified a few of the original notes of the Treasury to reflect a more accurate understanding of Bible prophecy. Notes at Ezekiel 48:4, Daniel 2:44, and Micah 4:4 reflect such modification. I have written a number of new notes for this edition. These are identified under the Subject Index entry “Notes written for this edition.” In this new edition, Roman numerals are no longer used, as they were in all former editions, to designate Bible chapter numbers.
The chapter headnotes have been expanded and given in greater detail. For the most part these were taken directly from Scott’s Commentary, rarely supplemented by the headnotes in Matthew Poole’s Commentary. I expanded the headnotes for Leviticus, chapter 19, and Deuteronomy, chapter 28. I modified the headnotes for several of the chapters of Zechariah to reflect a more accurate, consistent, literal view of prophetic interpretation. These headnotes are of much assistance in locating the subject matter of a chapter. Frequently I recall that a particular incident is mentioned in a book of the Bible, but I may not be able to think of a specific word used in the account, and therefore cannot use Strong’s Concordance to locate the desired passage. The headnotes efficiently direct my attention to the passage sought.
Thomas Scott was the original compiler of the cross-references in The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge. I have adhered closely to Scott’s original intent as expressed in the following quotes from his Preface Postscript:
“In numerous instances the references are entirely original, and in almost all many are so.”
I have added many original references to those of the original Treasury, and still more from the Commentary Wholly Biblical, Robert Young’s Concise Critical Comments, and The New Testament with Fuller References. “In some of the original references, the Author’s idea [i.e., Scott’s] may not at once be perceived by the reader: but, if the several places referred to be consulted, it will generally appear.”
I have remarked on this problem in the next section, “How to Use This Book.” “He has sometimes proceeded by way of contrast, that the reader, by comparing the opposite characters or conduct of the persons mentioned, may more clearly perceive the excellency or evil of the case in question.”
I have extended this feature in some places (1 S 25:17; 2 K 5:13) with additional references, and have used a special symbol (◐) to indicate contrast.
“Or by comparing the different language of Scripture, used on the same subject, he may more readily see the true interpretation, especially on controverted subjects; or at least be better enabled to judge for himself.”
I have attempted to advance the doctrine of private judgment (Ga 1:8n) and the perspicuity of Scripture (Is 8:20n) to this very purpose. Controversial subjects have not been shunned. Scripture evidence for valid alternative doctrinal or interpretative positions has been marshalled. The false doctrines held by those of Arian and Unitarian persuasion have been carefully addressed, particularly the doctrinal positions of the Jehovah’s Witnesses.
“Some pains have likewise been taken, even on those parts of Scripture which chiefly consist of names, to point out other passages, in which the same persons or places are mentioned; and to mark the difference in spelling the same name, or the different names for the same person or place which occur in different parts, and the different places and persons called by the same name. Sometimes the unlearned reader is perplexed or misled by these variations; and this part of the references often contains all, which even the most learned know upon the subject, especially in the genealogies.”
This feature of the original Treasury has been extended to the point that the Treasury is now exhaustively complete on these matters, with an accuracy surpassing, in some places, that of Strong’s Concordance and other standard reference sources. The literal meaning of the original Hebrew and Greek names is given. The meanings were taken largely from Young’s Concise Critical Comments, the tables of such names in volume three of The Commentary Wholly Biblical, supplemented by occasional reference to the definitions from several dictionaries of Bible names, particularly the dictionary revised and edited by Philip Schaff, “Comprehensive Bible Helps,” in the Funk and Wagnalls edition of Wilmore’s New Analytical Reference Bible (Copyright 1891, 1910, 1918). This information is readily accessed by means of the complete Index to the names in Scripture at the end of this volume.
“The meaning of scriptural phrases may also be often fixed, by comparing the several places where they are used. This is the intent of many sets of references; while others refer to the doctrine or promise inculcated in the passage, and tend to establish a scriptural interpretation.”
Doctrinal topics have been carefully referenced, indexed, and expanded, utilizing the excellent material found in Charles Simmons’ A Scripture Manual and other standard sources. Bible promises have been indexed and expanded, using Samuel Clark’s Precious Bible Promises. Bible references to prayer have been expanded and indexed, using Philip Watters’ work, The Prayers of the Bible. References to unfulfilled Bible prophecy have been made more complete by a thorough study of George N. H. Peters’ The Theocratic Kingdom of our Lord Jesus, the Christ. The precise extent to which this is so may be determined by examining the subject index entries under this author’s name. I have expanded the references which relate to prophetic subjects. Reference to Isaiah 55:3, Matthew 5:5, and Luke 21:36 will furnish a sampling of the extent to which this has been done.
On important themes of practical and contemporary interest, forward and backward referencing has been increased. Passages of practical (Hab 2:20, 1 Co 15:55), prophetic (Am 9:14, 15, Lk 21:36), and doctrinal (Am 3:6, Mt 24:45, 28:19) significance have been so referenced. Thus, at Amos 3:6 will be found many references not supplied before to the other passages in Scripture which treat the same themes, which themselves (in the Treasury) contain a cross-reference to Amos 3:6.
Figures of speech are identified. I believe this edition of The New Treasury of Scripture Knowledge contains the most comprehensive listing and identification of the figures of speech in the Bible ever produced in English.
The “Preface to the Treasury Bible” supplies the following important explanation not found in any current printings of The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge: “To preserve the distinction between the Various Readings [from the A.V.] and the editorial remarks and explanations which occur, the word “or” in the one case is printed in italics, with a small o; in the other in Roman, with a capital O: thus, Ge 4:13, “My punishment is greater than I can bear. or, Mine iniquity is greater than that it may be forgiven.” In Ge 19:1, it is said, “And there came two angels. Or rather, ‘the two angels came.’ ”
I have adhered to this principle as far as possible. When adding alternative translations not provided by the A.V. translators, such as those I have adduced from Young’s Literal Translation and its accompanying Concise Critical Comments, I have introduced the alternative rendering by an unitalicized “or.” “When the references illustrate the whole verse, the italic words are not printed, because not required.”
This feature has been eliminated. All sets of reference passages in this new edition of the Treasury are keyed to the appropriate words of the text of the Authorized Version, eliminating the ambiguity present in the original system.
Thomas Scott used the words “see on” to indicate a passage where a more complete set of references was collected. I have restored many instances of this feature which were inadvertently deleted or inconsistently retained in the original editions of the Treasury. I have expanded this most helpful feature by using the symbol “+” in many more places. Thomas Scott’s system is thus left intact. It may be distinguished from mine by the two different markings for essentially the same feature.
Cross-references have an advantage over chain references in that all the references are presented at one location, and with the new system of symbols introduced to this edition of the Treasury, the relative clarity, significance, or relationships of the references is presented at a single glance to the reader.
Studying all the references given for a text, then the references which that text can lead to, and so forth, will enable the careful student of Scripture to consider all the material in the Bible which relates to the subject or passage being studied.
Frequently in Bible study the student will want to know, “But what does the rest of Scripture have to say on this matter?” The only resource which can provide an answer will often be found to be the Treasury. No combination of additional Bible study tools quite duplicates the content of The New Treasury of Scripture Knowledge. At many places in the Bible the Treasury will be found more complete. Almost always it will have far more cross-references than any other source or combination of sources.
Scott comments, “The degree of labor and attention, which has been used to render the printing of the references correct, cannot easily be conceived: yet probably some errors still remain.” I have found five errors in Scott’s London Edition that were corrected in the original Treasury; four errors in the London Edition that were corrected in the American edition; twenty-eight errors in the London edition, which I corrected in this new edition of the Treasury during my typing and proofreading of the manuscript. Something over 4,000 corrections involving unjustifiable changes and deletions from Scott’s original references, and no less than 680 actual printing errors in the current edition of the original Treasury—459 from the Old Testament, 221 from the New Testament—have been found and corrected for this new edition of the Treasury. This new edition, therefore, is the most accurate collection of these extensive references available.
HOW TO USE THIS BOOK
The Bible is divided into separate books (such as Genesis, Exodus, or John). Each book is divided into chapters. Each chapter is divided into verses. This Bible study tool, The New Treasury of Scripture Knowledge, is arranged just like a Bible. It is divided into the same Bible books, chapters, and verses. To find information about any verse in the Bible, simply look up the book of the Bible where it is found, the chapter, and the verse. Whenever a Bible reference is given, the abbreviated name of the book is given first, followed by the chapter number, a colon, and the verse number. The reference John 3:16 means the book of John, chapter 3, verse 16.
This Bible study tool is designed to be used with any edition or translation of the Bible. This book provides for nearly every verse in the Bible a selection of other verses which shed light upon, clarify, or explain the verse you are consulting. Such verses are commonly known as “cross-references.” Many study Bibles contain cross-references in their center column, and you may already be familiar with these. This book provides a far more complete selection of cross-references than can be found in any other source. The great advantage of having such a complete selection of references is that the Bible is allowed to comment upon and explain itself—something which it does very well. The Bible explains itself even better, and in far greater detail, than people who are otherwise quite familiar with its contents might suppose.
Why should you study the Bible in this way? Careful students of the Bible are aware that this is the way which the Savior Himself studied and discussed Scripture (Luke 24:27,44; John 1:45; 5:39). It is the way which the apostle Paul used to expound and explain the Bible (Acts 17:2,3). Reflections of this method of studying Scripture can be seen in the way the apostle Paul quotes a series of texts of Scripture in his epistles (see especially Romans 3:9-18). So while there are many other valuable methods of Bible study, the method of comparing Scripture with Scripture (made possible by the cross-references gathered in this volume) is certainly a valid, if not the best, method of Bible study. It is a Scriptural method, used by Christ in his teaching (Lk 4:18), reflected by the frequent use of composite quotations from the Old Testament in the New (Mt 27:9), and commended by Paul in Acts 17:11: “These were more noble than those in Thessalonica, in that they received the word with all readiness of mind, and searched the scriptures daily, whether those things were so.”
The English text from the King James or Authorised Version of 1611 for 2 Timothy 1:7, a passage alluded to in the Preface, reads:
7. For God hath not given us the spirit of fear; but of power, and of love, and of a sound mind.
Here is an example of what The New Treasury of Scripture Knowledge provides at 2 Timothy 1:7.
7. the spirit. Ac *20:24. 21:13. Ro *8:15. He 2:15. 1 J *4:18. but. Mi *3:8. Zc *4:6. Lk 10:19. *24:49. Ac *1:8. 6:8. 9:22. *10:38. 1 Co *2:4. of love. Ro *5:5. Ga *5:22. Col 1:8. 1 P *1:22. a sound. Ps *119:80. Pr *2:7. *8:14. Lk *8:35. *15:17. Ac *26:11, 25. 2 Co 5:13, 14.
Rather than print out all the words of a verse, only the first words or the key words of a phrase or clause are printed in bold typeface. Following the key word will be found a set of cross-references to the other Bible passages which are helpful in understanding the verse you are reading. The key words are based on the King James or Authorized Version of 1611, but you will almost always find that the wording of any other version of the Bible is close enough that you can use the references with no difficulty. The asterisked verses represent especially clear passages that may be profitably consulted by even a new user of this volume.
Consider the references given above for the phrase “sound mind”: Ps *119:80. Pr *2:7. *8:14. Lk *8:35. *15:17. Ac *26:11, 25. 2 Co 5:13, 14. So that the nature of the help to be derived from consulting such a series of Bible references may be immediately seen by the reader, the text of these several references is printed out in full below: Psalms *119:80. “Let my heart be sound in thy statutes, that I be not ashamed.” Proverbs *2:7. “He layeth up sound wisdom for the righteous: he is a buckler to them that walk uprightly.”
Proverbs *8:14. “Counsel is mine, and sound wisdom: I am understanding; I have strength.”
Luke *8:35. “Then they went out to see what was done; and came to Jesus, and found the man, out of whom the devils were departed, sitting at the feet of Jesus, clothed, and in his right mind: and they were afraid.”
Luke *15:17. “And when he came to himself, he said, How many hired servants of my father’s have bread enough and to spare, and I perish with hunger!”
Acts *26:11, 25. (11) “And I punished them oft in every synagogue, and compelled them to blaspheme; and being exceedingly mad against them, I persecuted them even unto strange cities.” (25) “But he said, I am not mad, most noble Festus; but speak forth the words of truth and soberness.”
2 Co 5:13, 14. (13) “For whether we be beside ourselves, it is to God: or whether we be sober, it is for your cause.” (14) “For the love of Christ constraineth us; because we thus judge, that if one died for all, then were all dead.”
Notice the common thread of thought through these several verses as represented by the words “sound heart,” “sound wisdom,” “right mind,” “came to himself,” “not mad,” “sober.” These comforting and reassuring words furnish a biblical answer to the attempts of others bent on discouraging new-found interest in the Bible and spiritual things.
The cross-references do not furnish the same information that a concordance does. A Bible concordance is an alphabetical index to the words of the Bible. The cross-references given in the New Treasury are not merely to the same word, although this is sometimes the case, but to the same or a related thought, theme, doctrine, subject, concept, or literary motif, even when expressed in entirely different words, as can be seen from even the short example above.
For example, if you consult the cross-references given to Genesis 3:15, regarded as the first biblical prophecy of a coming Redeemer or Messiah, you will find over one hundred cross-references to other related messianic prophecies and the New Testament passages which show their fulfillment. Such a collection of references could not be found by means of a concordance alone. If the student will turn in the New Treasury to the clearest references given at Genesis 3:15, such as Genesis 49:10, even more references to messianic prophecy will be found. Used in this manner, the New Treasury can be used in an exhaustive study of any Bible subject, and will lead to more explanatory verses than any other study tool available.
Some readers may benefit by some suggestions as to the actual mechanics of using the volume. I have found it helpful to study at a well-lighted table, with the New Treasury open to the passage I am studying. I find it easiest to use two Bibles with good print. I keep the largest one with the clearest print open to the verse being studied. I use a smaller Bible to turn to the various references cited for the passage I am studying.
Whenever possible, it is best to consult all the references given. Frequently the relevance of earlier references cited becomes abundantly clear when all the references have been consulted. My own experience has taught me that when I do not understand the bearing or relevance of a particular reference given, the trouble is with me. I usually discover that as I learn more about the Bible passage, or the theme involved, the relevance of the passage becomes clear. When the subject is an important one, and I encounter what seems to be an obscure reference—one that does not seem to pertain to the passage I am trying to understand—I find that turning to that passage and looking up its references generally makes the intended relationship clear. But when time and interest would make this procedure impractical to the reader, an effort has been made in this edition to assist the reader by identifying the clearest texts, or the most crucial ones, for understanding the text being studied through the use of special symbols.
The New Treasury of Scripture Knowledge probably has more cross-references than you could hope to consult in a lifetime of use. Yet that is the very heart of its advantage over other study tools—it is an inexhaustible study resource. Just how can a reader use this volume without becoming bogged down by the sheer quantity of cross-references?
In devotional reading, as I read a Bible chapter, I often come upon a verse that particularly strikes my interest, or meets a particular need. At that point, I open the New Treasury and consult the references for that verse. Sometimes discussing the Bible with others who have a totally different understanding of what it says will motivate me to look up the references on the verses pertaining to a disputed doctrine or interpretation. For Sunday school lesson preparation I will often study the lesson Scripture text, then select a particularly significant or relevant verse or two and consult the references to that passage. Then I share just the few clearest references with the class when that verse is discussed.
It is better to use the New Treasury in your personal study briefly and regularly, rather than to set up an overly ambitious program of extended study, only to give up for lack of time or discipline to put the program into effect. The book will do no good closed on the shelf, but it will prove to be a rich spiritual resource if used right along with your regular reading of the Bible.
Why should you study the Bible by consulting well-chosen cross-references? Those who are most familiar with the Bible know that the Bible is its own best commentary. It is most essential when arriving at an understanding of what the Bible teaches on any given theme that we first come to an understanding of what the Bible itself says. This can only be done when we consult all the Bible has to say on a subject. If we wish to arrive at the truth God has placed in His Word, we must make that Word our first authority, and it would be better if it were our only authority. We must not cite Bible texts in an arbitrary fashion with no regard to context, the culture which produced the text, and the statements elsewhere in the Bible which bear on the theme or doctrine being considered. Jesus said we are to “search the Scriptures” (Jn 5:39). Certainly The New Treasury of Scripture Knowledge is a most essential Bible study tool which will enable you to do just that.
This book is intended to be an essential companion to your Bible reading and study. No matter how much or how little prior knowledge of the Bible you bring to this study tool, it will provide the needed assistance to understand the Bible more accurately and deeply. If your experience is similar to mine, you will find this book the most helpful aid to in-depth Bible study you have ever used.
SYMBOLS AND ABBREVIATIONS
Below is an explanation of the symbols and abbreviations used in this edition of The New Treasury of Scripture Knowledge. (The extended back jacket flap lists all of these and, removed, may be used as a bookmark.)
* placed before a cross-reference indicates an especially clear reference. These references should be looked up by the beginning user of this volume. As more experience is gained, all the references may be consulted.
✓ placed before a cross-reference indicates a critically clear, pertinent, significant reference.
+ A fuller collection of references to this term are gathered at the verse so indicated.
+* or+✓ Additional references to this topic, or a fuller collection for this topic is given at the verse so indicated.
◐ Contrast. Identifies groups of references gathered on another aspect of the topic, or identifies cross references which explain an apparent or alleged contradiction or alternate doctrinal position.
= Identifies a type or antitype.
e Type or antitype identified on biblical authority.
▶ Identifies quotations in the New Testament from the Old Testament, and at Old Testament passages the fact that they are quoted in the New Testament.
▶℘ Identifies quotations from the Pentateuch in the prophets.
✡ Identifies references which are the fulfillment of prophecy.
∥ Indicates a strict parallel passage, as in the gospels, or the books of Samuel, Kings, and Chronicles. These have not been noted exhaustively, but only selectively.
❅S# placed before a Strong’s number (❅S#2313h) indicates that all the occurrences of the original Hebrew or Greek word so marked are given here.
✣S# placed before a Strong’s number (✣S#2313g) indicates that all the occurrences to the Hebrew or Greek word which are relevant or similar to the use there are given.
( ) When a cross-reference in a figure–of–speech listing is placed in parentheses, this indicates that the figure is not apparent in English versions (KJV, Young’s Literal Translation, or Rotherham) and so is not cross-referenced back to the explanation of the figure at the passage so listed.
( ) In a series of references to a Hebrew or Greek word identified by its Strong’s number, the English translation is given in parentheses when the word is rendered differently in a particular reference.
( ) An English word in parentheses after a verse reference lets the reader know which word in that verse translates the same underlying Hebrew or Greek word.
( ) A word placed in parentheses in connection with the figure of speech Ellipsis indicates the word is not present in the original language, but is to be supplied in accordance with the figure of speech as indicated.
CB Companion Bible
F/L In the book of Isaiah, sets of references to “first” (Is ch. 1-39) and “last” (Is ch. 40-66) portions of Isaiah are given to demonstrate the unity of the book. Words alleged by some authorities to occur in only the first portion of the book are seen to be used in the latter portion, demonstrating that the book is the work of a single author.
ƒ Figures of speech are identified with a reference number, such as ƒ102, followed by the name of the figure of speech in the main entry, or a reference to where that figure is explained, and to where all the other instances of that particular figure, or a subset of that figure, can be found. This feature is an essential aid to Bible interpretation. This is the first time that such information has been made readily accessible to the ordinary Bible reader in one source. The Companion Bible identifies many of the figures of speech in its margins, and has a list with brief definitions in its Appendix 6. However, users of The Companion Bible who come across an important instance of the use of a figure of speech are not led in that volume to the other instances of its use. But to learn to identify a figure when it is used, one needs to see it in many contexts until one has developed a “feel” for the figure, and can learn its characteristics enough to be able to identify it wherever it occurs. Of course, one can consult E. W. Bullinger’s Figures of Speech Used in the Bible, but there are many instances given in the margins of The Companion Bible which are not listed or discussed in that book, and many instances given in the book not given in The Companion Bible. This edition of the Treasury remedies that, and furnishes additional references to the figures not found in either of those two excellent sources.
The names of the figures of speech have been alphabetized and given reference numbers from 1 to 180. Often the reference number is followed by additional letters and numbers to clearly identify the specific category of the figure of speech. The full alphabetical list of the figures with the subcategories is given in the Figure of Speech Index at the end of this volume.
B B542 means a reference is made to page 542 of E. W. Bullinger’s Figures of Speech Used in the Bible. All main figure of speech entries are so keyed to this volume.
g or h Indicates verbal references to the same Hebrew or Greek words when used after a cross-reference. After a Strong’s number, indicates whether the number refers to the Hebrew or Greek lexicon at the end of Strong’s Concordance.
ISBE International Standard Bible Encyclopedia
mg A reference to the marginal reading found in the center column of many editions of the King James or Authorized Version of the Bible.
MM James Hope Moulton and George Milligan, The Vocabulary of the Greek Testament.
n Placed after a cross reference (Ge 2:7n) means that there is a pertinent note at that reference about the subject of the reference. This new feature makes the many notes throughout the New Treasury far more accessible than in previous editions and provides a unique internal cross-referencing system for the notes.
or, Italicized “or,” identifies a marginal reading supplied by the translators of the Authorized or King James Version.
or, Unitalicized “or,” identifies alternate renderings supplied by this editor from Robert Young’s Literal Translation and its accompanying Concise Critical Comments, and other sources.
S# There are selected references to the numbers of Strong’s Concordance throughout this edition of the Treasury, so relating information in the Treasury with other published Bible study reference tools keyed to Strong’s Concordance. Consult the Strong’s Number Index at the end of this volume.
T# Topic numbers are for the first time furnished in this edition of the Treasury, together with an index to these topics, to give the New Treasury all the advantages of a topical Bible or topical arrangement of the Scriptures. Sometimes the full set of references for more than one topic is located at the same verse. To help the user rapidly identify the appropriate set of references, the topic numbers are given at each major collection of indexed topical references.
TDNT Theological Dictionary of the New Testament
w “with.” This symbol is used whenever cross-references are listed out of their normal biblical sequence in order to show important relationships between passages, relationships which would be lost if all the references were always cited only in the biblical order. Normally, however, references are cited in their biblical order, excepting that references are first given to verses within the same biblical book. All other references are cited in turn in biblical order. It is a sound rule of interpretation to seek first to understand the meaning of the language of an author by reference to the use of the same or similar language in the same book.
‡ placed after a topic number indicates the topic provides a set of proof texts used to support a false doctrine. The importance of including selected references of this category cannot be overestimated, for this furnishes the Bible-believing Christian with a defense against false doctrines promulgated by what are sometimes known as “false cults.” Thus, by means of these symbols you can learn the commonly cited proof texts used to support a mistaken interpretation, and by reference to the cross-references not so marked, and especially by reference to cross-references marked with a ◐ symbol, the reader can learn the biblical answer to many of the false positions of the cults. Such helpful sets of cross-references are now marked out for the reader more fully in the New Treasury than in any other single reference source available.
? or x placed before a cross-reference indicates doubtful validity of the reference, for it is a wrong identification of the source of a quotation, or it is a proof text underlying a mistaken doctrinal or prophetic interpretation, or it is a questionable identification of a figure of speech—questionable because it is misidentified, or arbitrarily supports a mistaken doctrinal viewpoint.